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Printed instructions were issued for carrying the work.
Since medical inspection was introduced later, these records have never been published.
In order that these valuable local statistics may not entirely lost, I have undertaken the computation for two widely separated districts the city representing the greatest difference in social conditions, the poor and the well-to-do, as get a truer average for the city as well note what difference, if any, may associated with environment. The number examinations tabulated. The records made were HEALTH STATISTICS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN OF WASHINGTON entirely white children. I present the result merely as a contribution what has already been done along this line, and as facts for future In order that the statistics may have the greatest significance, they have also been arranged grades, as well as sex. It was decided keep the age for the school grade in years and twelfths, that in comparing with examiners who have adopted the age group represented the last birthday, or the age group represented the nearest birthday, in either case a transition could readily made.
Parents control the bodies and minds, the hearts and souis their children not much what their ancestors were as what they themselves and think. As every country has its language, its literature and its laws, too, has its traditions, prejudices and superstitions some racial, other religious, which often prove serious obstacles in the path physicians and nurses engaged in municipal health work. In the cosmopolitan city New York, with its, people, its schools public and others its, school children, have several lands in one, for with the swarthy Syrian, the flaxen haired Swede, the confiding loquacious German, the wary and reticent Greek, the suspicious European, the doubting Italian, and the Jewish, Irish, Bohemian, Hungarian, Polish, Slavish, Armenian, French, colored, Japanese, Chinese and Scandinavian elements, there arises a mass doubt and hesitancy regarding the laws health and proper living, which education alone can overcome.
It may seem a far reaching statement make, but the truth that in the prevention and treatment disease among the tenement population in New York City, the physician or health officer must deal not only with the conditions at issue, but what at times more difficult must meet and combat a fusillade prejudice, tradition and superstition, ignorance, distrust, apprehension, indifference, irresponsibility, poverty and antagonism. When the history the twentieth century has been written, doubtful if any accomplishment along the lines preventive medicine will stand out more prominently than the paraphrasing sites medical inspection and examination school children inspection whose preeminent consideration prevention disease inspection which at school guards against contagion in every form and discovers the existence physical defects that interfere with the child's development, school progress, educable master thesis writing help capacity, equipment and future usefulness inspection which a thorough follow process in the home unearths hidden and unsuspected contagion and stimulates in parents an endeavor have physical defects remedied and thus prevent shattered and perverted lives and degenerate citizenship inspection which not only and for to-day but which will make the future homes a more potent environ PREJUDICES AND SUPERSTITIONS IN MEDICAL INSPECTION ment for the development the physical, mental, moral and spiritual well being their offspring inspection which has for its ultimate goal the betterment home conditions and the welfare the child the nation's best asset as has been called. The socioeconomical conditions life in New York City are complex, different from those almost any other city in the world, and intimately interwoven with school life, that any attempt at accomplishing results from medical school inspection, however complete, will prove only partly successful, unless constant and repeated attention given the home.
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It in the home that many conditions, which after persistent effort are eradicated or ameliorated the nurse at school, are reborn as were renewed activity in the home that hygienic, dietetic, and other errors must ultimately corrected and in the home that the peculiar customs and mode living which have been brought the alien population and which are pronounced and firmly rooted, must combated, ere hope see light in the solution many school problems. To appreciate the part which tradition, prejudice and superstition play, one has only accompany an inspector and nurse the Health Department the various home quarters which their daily work carries them.
Here you will brought face face with a motley crowd which may not fit the age in which live but which must reckoned with and approached in every instance from a different Come with then into the heart the tenement district and listen the answers which are given the inspectors and nurses in response their plea for early and proper treatment the physical defects found in the school children and their advice prevention contagion, child diet, child care, hygiene and sanitation. It needless state that defective eyesight in its many phases near-sightedness myopia, far sightedness hyperopia, astigmatism, etc. one the most frequent cause school retardation. Truly with many the children, see or not see the question. And yet the answers which some parents give and the arguments which they advance in response the request for eyeglasses and other forms treatment would seem laughable were the problem not serious. They help me with my research paper will tell you that eyeglasses are a luxury, that they are worn for style, that they make the child look old, that the child will get used them, that or she will subjected ridicule at the hands the playmates, a frequent taunt being Oh you four eyes ! They add that the wearing eyeglasses will become a habit, that the child will never able get along without them and that the eyes will grow weaker. And after all this, the mother the lower East Side the Ghetto section will FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON SCHOOL HYGIENE tell you that the presence eyeglasses will interfere seriously essay service with her daughter's matrimonial prospects, that she won't marry well, or as one mother told her ten year old, if she needs glasses let her husband buy them. It in fact an open secret in this section the city that the marriage marketable value a daughter with eyeglasses below par. Not infrequently when visiting the home a child excluded from school for mucopurulent conjunctivitis you will find an infant or another child similarly affected and the mother attempting a cure literally squirting breast milk into the eyes. What a woeful waste nutriment! What an ideal culture medium for bacteria! And many mothers in order prevent strabismus will continually keep passing their hands before the child's eyes, while the Bohemian element not infrequently treats ulcer the eyeball dusting sugar into the How many children to-day owe their deafness the fact that their parents considered running ears beneficial and the belief that like running sores they allowed the poison escape readily and thus purify the blood? I have often called the attention parents the fact that a child experienced some difficulty in hearing college research paper writers which should given immediate attention, only informed that at With all that has been written, published and preached the subject, would seem as if parents should realize the necessity and importance free and unobstructed nasal passages.